In response to the Chinese Civil War, the government implemented the National General Mobilization Law in 1947 (Year 36 of the ROC calendar) and then the Temporary Provisions Effective During the Period of National Mobilization for Suppression of the Communist Rebellion in May 1948 (Year 37 of ROC calendar) to suspend several clauses of the constitution. 1949 (Year 38 of the ROC calendar) was an important year, with May 20 marking the beginning of a 38-year period of martial law in Taiwan. Toward the end of the same year, when the ROC Government retreated to Taiwan it was accompanied by the millions of people also fleeing from China.

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